Volume 5, Issue 2, December 2020, Page: 30-36
Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Physiological Variables of University Students
Assegid Ketema, Department of Sport Science, College of Natural Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Received: Sep. 18, 2020;       Accepted: Oct. 5, 2020;       Published: Oct. 13, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.aap.20200502.14      View  20      Downloads  12
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on university students’ physiological variables. 40 male sports science students with an age range between 18-25 years were randomly assigned to the HIIT group (n=20) and control (C) group (n=20). The experiment group underwent eight weeks of HIIT, whereas, C group do not. Pre and posttest measurements of physiological variables like resting heart rate (RHR), respiratory rate (RR), recovery heart rate (RcHR), breath holding time (BHT), VO2 max and blood pressure BP) were made for all subjects before and after the intervention. To compare the mean physiological variables between the experiment and control groups, an independent sample t-test was employed. The statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Following the exercise intervention, the experiment group shows significantly better improvements than the control group in, RHR, RR, BHT, VO2 max, and systolic blood pressure (p<0.05). Thus, it was concluded that eight weeks of HIIT show a significant improvement in the physiological variables of university students.
High-Intensity Interval Training, Resting Heart Rate, Recovery Rate (RR), Breathe Hold, Maximal Oxygen Uptake, Blood Pressure
To cite this article
Assegid Ketema, Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Physiological Variables of University Students, Advances in Applied Physiology. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2020, pp. 30-36. doi: 10.11648/j.aap.20200502.14
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
M. Buchheit and P. B. Laursen, “High-Intensity Interval Training, Solutions to the Programming Puzzle,” Sport. Med., vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 313–338, May 2013, doi: 10.1007/s40279-013-0029-x.
M. W. Driller, J. W. Fell, J. R. Gregory, C. M. Shing, and A. D. Williams, “The Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training in Well-Trained Rowers,” Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 110–121, Mar. 2009, doi: 10.1123/ijspp.4.1.110.
U. Wisløff et al., “Superior Cardiovascular Effect of Aerobic Interval Training Versus Moderate Continuous Training in Heart Failure Patients,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 24, pp. 3086–3094, Jun. 2007, doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.675041.
S. Ito, “High-intensity interval training for health benefits and care of cardiac diseases - The key to an efficient exercise protocol,” World J. Cardiol., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 171–188, Jul. 2019, doi: 10.4330/wjc.v11.i7.171.
G. A. Gaesser and S. S. Angadi, “High-intensity interval training for health and fitness: can less be more?,” J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 1540–1541, Dec. 2011, doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01237.2011.
K. A. Burgomaster, G. J. F. Heigenhauser, and M. J. Gibala, “Effect of short-term sprint interval training on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance,” J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 2041–2047, Jun. 2006, doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01220.2005.
U. Wisløff, Ø. Ellingsen, and O. J. Kemi, “High-Intensity Interval Training to Maximize Cardiac Benefits of Exercise Training?,” Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 139–146, Jul. 2009, doi: 10.1097/JES.0b013e3181aa65fc.
A. H. El Gilany, K. Badawi, G. El Khawaga, and N. Awadalla, “Physical activity profile of students in Mansoura University, Egypt,” East. Mediterr. Heal. J., vol. 17, no. 08, pp. 694–702, Aug. 2011, doi: 10.26719/2011.17.8.694.
R. B. Batacan, M. J. Duncan, V. J. Dalbo, P. S. Tucker, and A. S. Fenning, “Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies,” Br. J. Sports Med., vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 494–503, Mar. 2017, doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095841.
J. E. DONNELLY, S. N. BLAIR, J. M. JAKICIC, M. M. MANORE, J. W. RANKIN, and B. K. SMITH, “Appropriate Physical Activity Intervention Strategies for Weight Loss and Prevention of Weight Regain for Adults,” Med. Sci. Sport. Exerc., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 459–471, Feb. 2009, doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181949333.
M. L. Pollock et al., “ACSM Position Stand: The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults,” Med. Sci. Sport. Exerc., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 975–991, Jun. 1998, doi: 10.1097/00005768-199806000-00032.
P. B. Laursen and D. G. Jenkins, “The Scientific Basis for High-Intensity Interval Training,” Sport. Med., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 53–73, 2002, doi: 10.2165/00007256-200232010-00003.
W. Kent, “The effects of sprint interval training on aerobic fitness in untrained individuals: a systematic review,” Br. J. Sports Med., vol. 45, no. 15, pp. A8–A8, Dec. 2011, doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090606.26.
C.. Chourpiliadis and A. Bhardwaj, Physiology, Respiratory Rate. Island: StatPearls, 2019.
S. Rolfe, “The importance of respiratory rate monitoring,” Br. J. Nurs., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 504–508, Apr. 2019, doi: 10.12968/bjon.2019.28.8.504.
Y. J. van de Vegte, P. van der Harst, and N. Verweij, “Heart Rate Recovery 10 Seconds After Cessation of Exercise Predicts Death,” J. Am. Heart Assoc., vol. 7, no. 8, Apr. 2018, doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.008341.
M. H. Liner and D. Linnarsson, “Tissue oxygen and carbon dioxide stores and breath-hold diving in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 542–547, Aug. 1994, doi: 10.1152/jappl.1994.77.2.542.
G. Ferretti, “Extreme human breath-hold diving,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 254–271, Apr. 2001, doi: 10.1007/s004210000377.
J. Fernandez-Fernandez, R. Zimek, T. Wiewelhove, and A. Ferrauti, “High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Repeated-Sprint Training in Tennis,” J. Strength Cond. Res., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 53–62, Jan. 2012, doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318220b4ff.
T. C. Guetterman, M. D. Fetters, and J. W. Creswell, “Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays,” Ann. Fam. Med., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 554–561, Nov. 2015, doi: 10.1370/afm.1865.
A. Bryman, Social research method, 5th ed. new york, NY 100016: Oxford University press, 2008.
F Rabbia et al., “Assessing resting heart rate in adolescents: determinants and correlates,” vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 327–332, 2002, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jhh.1001398.
S. Galka, J. Berrell, R. Fezai, L. Shabella, P. Simpson, and L. Thyer, “Accuracy of student paramedics when measuring adult respiratory rate: a pilot study,” Australas. J. Paramed., vol. 16, Apr. 2019, doi: 10.33151/ajp.16.566.
Wheatley I, “Respiratory rate 3,” Nurs. Times, vol. 114, no. 7, pp. 21–22, 2018.
R. J. Skow, T. A. Day, J. E. Fuller, C. D. Bruce, and C. D. Steinback, “The ins and outs of breath holding: simple demonstrations of complex respiratory physiology,” Adv. Physiol. Educ., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 223–231, Sep. 2015, doi: 10.1152/advan.00030.2015.
K. H. Cooper, “A Means of Assessing Maximal Oxygen Intake,” JAMA, vol. 203, no. 3, p. 201, Jan. 1968, doi: 10.1001/jama.1968.03140030033008.
A. Bandyopadhyay, “Validity of Cooper’s 12-minute run test for estimation of maximum oxygen uptake in male university students,” Biol. Sport, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 59–63, Oct. 2014, doi: 10.5604/20831862.1127283.
S. W. K, Werner; A. Hoeger, Fitness and Wellness, 11th ed. Canada: Cengage Learing, 2014.
S. Larsen et al., “The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue,” Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. e59–e69, Feb. 2015, doi: 10.1111/sms.12252.
V. H. Arboleda-Serna, Y. Feito, F. A. Patiño-Villada, A. V. Vargas-Romero, and E. F. Arango-Vélez, “Effects of high-intensity interval training compared to moderate-intensity continuous training on maximal oxygen consumption and blood pressure in healthy men: A randomized controlled trial,” Biomédica, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 524–536, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.7705/biomedica.4451.
C. Dunham and C. A. Harms, “Effects of high-intensity interval training on pulmonary function,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 112, no. 8, pp. 3061–3068, Aug. 2012, doi: 10.1007/s00421-011-2285-5.
Karen Birch, Keith George, and Don McLaren, BIOS Instant Notes in Sport and Exercise Physiology, 1st ed. London: Routledge, 2004.
D. M. L. Prado et al., “Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease,” Brazilian J. Med. Biol. Res., vol. 49, no. 2, 2016, doi: 10.1590/1414-431X20154890.
M. Chlif, A. Chaouachi, and S. Ahmaidi, “Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Ventilatory Efficiency and Respiratory Drive in Obese Subjects,” Respir. Care, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 936–946, Jul. 2017, doi: 10.4187/respcare.04923.
A. Alansare, K. Alford, S. Lee, T. Church, and H. Jung, “The Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Heart Rate Variability in Physically Inactive Adults,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 15, no. 7, p. 1508, Jul. 2018, doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071508.
A. Al-Fehaid, S. Alkahtani, A. Al-Sunni, and T. Yar, “Role of the work-to-rest ratio in high-intensity interval exercise on heart rate variability and blood pressure in sedentary obese men,” Saudi J. Heal. Sci., vol. 7, no. 2, p. 83, 2018, doi: 10.4103/sjhs.sjhs_103_17.
E. Rey, C. Lago-Peñas, L. Casáis, and J. Lago-Ballesteros, “The Effect of Immediate Post-Training Active and Passive Recovery Interventions on Anaerobic Performance and Lower Limb Flexibility in Professional Soccer Players,” J. Hum. Kinet., vol. 31, no. 1, Jan. 2012, doi: 10.2478/v10078-012-0013-9.
D. L. Tomlin and H. A. Wenger, “The Relationship Between Aerobic Fitness and Recovery from High Intensity Intermittent Exercise,” Sport. Med., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2001, doi: 10.2165/00007256-200131010-00001.
T. Karlsen, B. M. Nes, A. E. Tjønna, M. Engstrøm, A. Støylen, and S. Steinshamn, “High-intensity interval training improves obstructive sleep apnoea,” BMJ Open Sport Exerc. Med., vol. 2, no. 1, p. bmjsem-2016, Feb. 2017, doi: 10.1136/bmjsem-2016-000155.
T. Reilly, “An ergonomics model of the soccer training process,” J. Sports Sci., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 561–572, Jun. 2005, doi: 10.1080/02640410400021245.
I. TABATA et al., “Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and ??VO2max,” Med. & Sci. Sport. & Exerc., vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1327–1330, Oct. 1996, doi: 10.1097/00005768-199610000-00018.
R. Duffield, J. Edge, and D. Bishop, “Effects of high-intensity interval training on the response during severe exercise,” J. Sci. Med. Sport, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 249–255, Jun. 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2006.03.014.
Gretchen K. Berland et al., “Health information on the Internet,” Am. Med. Assoc., vol. 285, no. 20, pp. 2612–2621, 2001.
S. J. Hardcastle, H. Ray, L. Beale, and M. S. Hagger, “Why sprint interval training is inappropriate for a largely sedentary population,” Front. Psychol., vol. 5, Dec. 2014, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01505.
J. L. Trilk, A. Singhal, K. A. Bigelman, and K. J. Cureton, “Effect of sprint interval training on circulatory function during exercise in sedentary, overweight/obese women,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 111, no. 8, pp. 1591–1597, Aug. 2011, doi: 10.1007/s00421-010-1777-z.
T. Rankinen et al., “AGT M235T and ACE ID polymorphisms and exercise blood pressure in the HERITAGE Family Study,” Am. J. Physiol. Circ. Physiol., vol. 279, no. 1, pp. H368–H374, Jul. 2000, doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.2000.279.1.H368.
T. Rice et al., “Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis of Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure,” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 16, pp. 1956–1963, Oct. 2000, doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.102.16.1956.
R. H. FAGARD, “Exercise characteristics and the blood pressure response to dynamic physical training,” Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., vol. 33, no. Supplement, pp. S484–S492, Jun. 2001, doi: 10.1097/00005768-200106001-00018.
Browse journals by subject